Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):
Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):
Raising taxes during an economic downturn might seem counterintuitive but it could be the key to Covid-19 recovery. The secret lies in which taxes to raise: when it comes to impacts on the economy, jobs, and the environment, not all taxes are created equal.
Economists believe that a well-designed carbon tax is the most economically efficient policy to incentivize carbon reductions. A well-designed carbon price will encourage businesses and consumers to reduce carbon emissions. As of
The OECD-IEA Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels provides updated fossil fuel support data for 34 OECD member countries and six partner countries, including a number of measures applied
From Challenge to Opportunity: Shadow Country Reports in Support of the European Semester Cycle (GBE, CEE BankWatch, EEB)
This report by Green Budget Europe (GBE), CEE BankWatch and European Environment Bureau (EEB) involved an assessment of the 2016 European Semester Country Reports among network of members and national