This OECD report provides a systematic analysis of the structure and level of energy taxes in OECD and selected partner countries, which together cover 80% of global energy use. The analysis reveals large differences in the taxation of energy across countries, although common patterns emerge. Transport taxes are considerably higher than in other sectors, where fuels that cause considerable harm for the environment and human health are often taxed at very low – or zero – rates. With few exceptions, countries’ energy taxes do not harness the full power of taxes to reduce pollution and combat climate change. The publication is available to download on the OECD website.