Environmental Fiscal Reform and a Proposed Carbon Tax (UNEP IMF GIZ National Treasury Republic of South Africa 2012)

This presentation prepared by the National Treasury of the Republic of South Africa highlights many practical components to environmental fiscal reform. Criteria for implementation and design consideration are discussed including the need to phase in any reforms, maintain competition within industry, ensuring appropriate compensation to ensure fair distribution and adjoining various policy areas. Existing policy measures, such as South Africa’s fuel levy, as well as those under consideration, such as Waste Water Discharge management are presented. Moving forward, carbon emissions trading and carbon taxes are compared with tax design consideration elaborated in further detail.