Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):
Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):
The 2013 OECD Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels identifies and estimates direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures relating to fossil fuel production and consumption.
This study by IEEP provides an overview of experiences with carbon and energy taxes in a number of OECD countries. Through this examination of international experiences, it aims to provide insights