Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):
Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):
The 2013 OECD Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels identifies and estimates direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures relating to fossil fuel production and consumption.
Reforming environmentally harmful subsidies for a resource efficient Europe (IEEP, IVM, Ecologic, VITO)
This study for the European Commission (DG Environment) identifies and examines cases of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) across a range of environmental sectors and issues in EU Member States. The study also analyses examples
This study by IVM, VITO, IEEP and BIO for the European Commission identifies and quantifies government support to fossil fuels in the EU-28. The study finds that significant support is