Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):
Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):
The World Bank Group’s Board of Executive Directors approved on June 10, 2021 a US$500 million Program to catalyze public and private investment in Jordan for a green and inclusive recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.
The coronavirus crisis is a window of opportunity to transform the economy and especially, to make it “green.” Previous economic crises such as the financial crisis in 2008/09 and the oil
This book by World Bank staff and external contributors proposes a framework for understanding the political economy of subsidy reform and applies it to four in-depth country studies – the
Navigating Political Hurricanes in the MENA Region: Energy Pricing Reform in a Context of Changing Social Contracts (Center on Global Energy Policy)
This report from the Columbia Center on Global Energy Policy analyzes the political economy of energy pricing reforms in the Middle East and North Africa since the Arab Spring. The authors investigate the conditions