Country indicators

GDP per capita - gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. (Source: World Bank)
GDP per capita
Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions) - All consumer and producer pre-tax subsidies. Pre-tax consumer subsidies exist when energy consumers pay prices that are below the costs incurred to supply them with this energy. (Source: IMF)

Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):

Fossil Fuel Subsidies as % of GDP - All consumer and producer pre-tax subsidies as percent of a country’s GDP. (Source: IMF)
Fossil fuel subsidies
(% of GDP):
Fossil Fuel Subsidies with externalities as % of GDP - All consumer and producer post-tax subsidies. Post-tax consumer subsidies exist if consumer prices for energy are below supply costs plus the efficient levels of taxation. (Source: IMF)

Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):

Revenue from environmentally related taxes as % of GDP - All revenue from environmentally related taxes - defined as any compulsory, unrequited payment to general government levied on tax-bases deemed to be of particular environmental relevance – as percent of a country’s GDP. (Source: OECD)
Revenue from environmentally related taxes (% of GDP):
Ecommerce Outline
Carbon pricing gap - Measure of how much countries fall short of pricing carbon emissions in line with a EUR 60 benchmark value (midpoint estimate of the carbon costs in 2020 and a low-end estimate for 2030). The difference is presented as percentage: If the Effective Carbon Rate (ECR) on all emissions is at least as high as the benchmark, the gap is zero, and if the ECR is zero throughout, the gap is 100%. (Source: OECD)
Carbon Pricing Gap


Coal power plant

BRICS summit is likely to strongly oppose carbon tax proposed by EU

Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa may strongly oppose the proposed Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) by the European Union at the 13th BRICS Summit on Thursday as the five developing countries will likely be the biggest losers from its implementation. In a veiled reference to CBAM, BRICS trade ministers last week cautioned that any measure to tackle climate change must be in conformity with multilateral trading rules and shouldn’t put arbitrary restrictions on international trade.

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Policy Briefs

India – Country profile

Background With a population of 1.2 billion, India is the second most populated country in the world. The climate in this southern Asian country varies from tropical monsoon in the

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