Fossil fuel subsidies (USD, billions):
Fossil fuel subsidies with externalities (% of GDP):
The 2013 OECD Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels identifies and estimates direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures relating to fossil fuel production and consumption.
This Policy Research working paper is a product of the Energy and Extractives Global Practice Group at the World Bank Group. The paper provides an overview of experiences with fossil