This report from the Columbia Center on Global Energy Policy analyzes the political economy of energy pricing reforms in the Middle East and North Africa since the Arab Spring. The authors investigate the conditions under which the governments of Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran – each with very different political economies – were able to implement price increases. The report explains for each country why reform was necessary, how political coalitions affected reform planning and implementation, and how social contract dynamics affected the reforms. The report is available to download from the website of the Center on Global Energy Policy.