Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies in the EU is an important part of aligning energy prices with the EU’s climate and energy goals. However, there has recently been mixed progress in addressing fossil fuel subsidies in Europe. This Working Paper by the Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI) examines the opportunities provided by the EU’s Energy Union project for putting the phase-out of fossil fuel subsidies back on track in Europe through new governance mechanisms for monitoring and reporting national action.